Dreams in Sverris Saga Download Report. Published on Sep View Download 5. Om ett eddastlle och en fl ock i Sdermannalagen. On a passage in the Edda and a section of the Law of Sdermanland. The book focused on Vga-Glms saga, which Mbius dissected into eight sections with a view to distinguis-hing the traditional narrative from the authorial commentary in each sec-tion. Such a dissection was by no means arbitrary because the saga can indeed be understood as a concatenation of quite separable episodes.
In Mbiuss count, the lively story about Vga-Glmrs hostile encounter with Vga-Skta and their ingenious escape stratagems is the fi fth epi-sode chapter Their encounter was destined to become one of the classical problems in saga study because it recurs largely verbatim in Reykdla saga.
The question is therefore how these two nearly identical versions Pts avvisar uppgifter om kritik the same story relate to each other. The History of the ProblemIn Mbiuss era the problem had not yet become focus of attention, and there was no reason for him to write at length about it. He merely recorded his view that the plus passages in Reykdla saga were consci-ous deviations from the version in Vga-Glms saga.
In passing he did make the shrewd observation that in the two cases where the author of Reykdla saga points out alternate traditions, he is not speaking ran-domly but is referring directly to the text of Vga-Glms saga We therefore begin our story with the assumption that Reykdla saga borrowed the episode from Vga-Glms saga.
AnderssonIn the fi rst edition of his literary history Finnur Jnsson expressed the view that the two versions of the episode were oral variants The detail came from
Pts avvisar uppgifter om kritik unlikely source, a young American from Knoxville, Tennessee, named Claude Lotspeich, who studied with Eugen Mogk in Leipzig and devoted his dissertation to the topic in Lotspeich begins his dis-cussion by "Pts avvisar uppgifter om kritik" Mbius to the effect that the episode is isolated in Vga-Glms saga and is not connected with the main thread of the narra-tive, Glmrs feud with the Esphlingar Lotspeich then rein-forces the isolation by noting that only in this episode is the protagonist referred to as Vga-Glmr, whereas elsewhere he fi gures as Glmr plain and simple.
Such a written source indeed accounts better for the close match in wording Pts avvisar uppgifter om kritik Vga-Glms saga and Reykdla saga, which, Lotspeich argues, made similar use of the same written source X.
Where the two sagas differ, Lotspeich judged that the author of Vga-Glms saga abbreviated X. Lotspeichs chief argument for the existence of a separate and dis-tinctive written text was stylistic; he pointed out The episode therefore has a special profi le, which led Lotspeich to posit a special source.
Although Lotspeich left open the possibility that the author of Vga-Glms saga might have copied directly from Reykdla saga Remarkably, the speculation paid off twofold, inasmuch as not just one but two narratives picked up the episode and integrated it into larger contexts. It has been viewed tacitly as a sort of ttr, but the ttir are predominantly about young Icelanders in Norway.
There is no evidence that they served as the point of departure for the longer narrative. Quite apart from the greater simplicity of assuming that Reykdla saga copied from Vga-Glms saga or vice versa, episodic narratives about Saga Age events in Iceland are hard to document before the advent of saga writing. The argument that the descriptive prefi x Vga- is attached to Glmr and Skta only in this episode is at fi rst blush seductive, but we might note that Bari Gumundarson is mentioned 32 times in Grettis saga, 31 times in the form Bari and only once in the form Vga-Bari.
The single occurrence of Vga-Bari has not led to the positing of an additional source for Grettis saga. It is in fact surprising that Lotspeichs hypothesis carried as much weight as it did. When Pts avvisar uppgifter om kritik Liestl wrote an essay on Reykdla saga inhe did not refer to Lotspeich, but he may have been familiar with the conclusions through the second edition of Finnur Jnssons literary history 2, and He remains neutral on the relationship of Reykdla saga and Vga-Glms saga, saying only that it seemed quite certain that the episode in Reykdla saga was an interpolation.
On the origin of the interpolation he is agnostic Whether it was the author himself who added it in by using an unknown written source or a scribe who interpolated it from an oral or written sourcewe have no way of deciding with certainty. Nor does Liestl clarify the problem in a brief mention in The Origin of the Icelandic Family Sagas published two years later On the other hand, his reference to an unknown written source suggests that Lotspeichs hypothesis was still alive. It is the purpose of this present study to show that the saga writers in some cases probably used, in connection with the oral tradition, small written sources in the composition of their works.
Pts avvisar uppgifter om kritik does not, however, adduce any parallel examples of small written sources. Andersson
Pts avvisar uppgifter om kritik few years later Gabriel Turville-Petre developed a special inter-est in Vga-Glms saga, fi rst aired in a paper from Though critical of the lack of clarity in Lotspeichs dissertation, he supports the conclusion For all the weakness of his argu-ment, Lotspeichs conclusion may well deserve support.
As verifi cation of the distinctive, and hence interpolated, state of the episode he cites Lotspeichs evidence that the name Vga-Glmr occurs only here and that the historical present is used disproportionately Returning to the fi rst of these arguments a little later He does not consider the possibility that the use of Vga-Glmr here could have been prompted by the fact that the author of Reykdla saga was at this point copying from Vga-Glms saga, or that the rich use of the historical present could be explained in the same way.
But Turville-Petre may have had second thoughts because he was rather more circumspect when he published his comprehensive edition of Vga-Glms saga four years later. Here he neither accepts nor rejects Lotspeichs view but, like Liestl, leaves the question open, suggesting that the ttr must fi rst have been copied into VGl.
Turville-Petre was nonetheless convinced that the episode could not be an original part of Pts avvisar uppgifter om kritik saga That belief together with the allo-wance for a text which was also the source for Ch. Unfortunately, Turville-Petre did not pursue the matter further; we therefore do not know whether he favored the separate text or a direct loan from Reykdla saga.
Between Turville-Petres fi rst and second statements there appeared the posthumously printed lectures of Bjrn M. Bjrn refers to the problem briefl y but decisively He emphasizes the discrepancies between the accounts of rlaugs marriage and the identifi cations of the weapon Fluga: That makes it clear that Sktu saga made use of Glma in this section and not the other way around.
In the later mention p. If Turville-Petre became less certain of Pts avvisar uppgifter om kritik independent ttr underlying the two sagas, the same cannot be said of Bjrn Sigfsson, who brought out his edition of Reykdla saga in the same year in which Turville-Petres edition of Vga-Glms saga appeared. Far from downplaying the ttr, he advocated fuller dimensions for it He therefore identifi ed rlaug as the central character and named the ttr rlaugar ttr in her honor.
According to Vga-Glms saga Skta married rlaug but later repudiated her, giving rise to the subsequent enmity between Glmr and Skta. But Reykdla saga offers a different account. Here Glmr and his daughter connive to procure a better marriage, and she abandons Skta. The author of Reykdla saga knows the version in Vga-Glms saga some people take the view that Skta sent her home to Glmr Pts avvisar uppgifter om kritik opts rather for the tale of trickery.
Bjrn Sigfsson does not understand the repudiation motif as a refe-rence to Vga-Glms saga and suggests instead that the author took the motif from rlaugar ttr but changed it in order to improve Sktas image. This is a complicated hypothesis that piles unknown on unknown; we do not know that there was a rlaugar ttr or, if there was, what it contained, but Bjrn not only treats it as a given but goes on to speculate about the content, then speculates further that the author of Reykdla saga rejected the content.
Far simpler would be the assumption "Pts avvisar uppgifter om kritik" the author of Reykdla saga knew the repudiation motif directly from Vga-Glms saga but also knew another version perhaps a regional variant more favorable to Skta. His contribution was remarkable both for clarity and independence, especially with respect to the inherited assumption that a separate ttr was interpolated into Vga-Glms saga. He begins by noting how out of keeping the style of the episode is with Reykdla saga as a whole.
He therefore considers it unlikely that these chapters all derive from a single source, Bjrn Sigfssons rlaugar ttr. He argues that it is furthermore unlikely that the author of Reykdla saga would have borrowed only one chapter from a long ttr if such a text had really been at his disposal. That consideration makes him open to Bjrn M. The chief objection to such "Pts avvisar uppgifter om kritik" direct borrowing had been the widely held belief that the episode was an interpolated ttr in Vga-Glms saga.
Jnas reviews the reasons underlying that belief: Jnas attaches more weight to the authors apparent unfamiliarity with the terrain of the Eyjafjrur region in chapter 16, whereas elsewhere he seems perfectly at home in the area. Another discrepancy is that the action of chapter 16 seems less realistic and more improbable than in the remainder of the saga.
These factors conspire to isolate chapter 16 and suggest that it was not written by the author of the main saga, although Jnas fi nds it diffi cult to decide whether the episode was incorporated by the author himself or was a later interpolation. That the incident is well positioned in both manuscripts of Pts avvisar uppgifter om kritik saga inclines him to believe that it belongs to the original composition rather than being an interpolation.
In his later survey of medieval Icelandic literature Jnas Kristjnsson settled on a compromise solution; he accepted that there was a separate Sktu ttr, but he considered that it was not absorbed independently into both sagas, only into Vga-Glms saga, from which it was adopted by the author of Reykdla saga.
His summary statement is as follows Vga-Glms saga and Reykdla saga have one chapter in common, an account of Sktas trip to Eyjafjrur to attack Glmr, who had been his father-in-law: An independent Sktu ttr seems 11Vga-Glms saga and the Birth of Saga Writingto have been taken up in the saga of Glmr and borrowed from therealong with other matterby the author of Reykdla saga. Jnas Kristjnssons earlier analysis was not available to Walter Baetke when Pts avvisar uppgifter om kritik published a paper that appeared two years later Baetke Like Jnas, he criticizes Bjrn Sigfssons hypothetical rlaugar ttr and challen-ges Lotspeichs fi gures on the historical present.
Involuntarily picking up on Jnass doubts about such a small sample, he makes the interes-ting observation that other small samples also produce disproportionate percentages of the historical present. Baetke also reemphasizes the fact that the high percentage of direct discourse isola-tes the episode in the context of Reykdla saga but not in the context of Vga-Glms saga. In general Baetke favors the simpler option of deriving one saga from the other rather than introducing unknown quantities into the relation-ship In addition he points out that Glmrs character in the episode is in line with Vga-Glms saga, whereas Vga-Sktas personal-ity is at odds with Reykdla saga as a whole That suggests that the episode is more naturally situated in Vga-Glms saga than in Reykdla saga.
On the other hand,
Pts avvisar uppgifter om kritik mention of narrative variants in chapter 26 of Reykdla saga is characteristic of that saga and makes it easy to believe that the author altered what he found in Vga-Glms saga, especially since the most explicit deviations respond specifi cally to vari-ants found in chapter 16 of Vga-Glms saga Baetke notes a further echo of Vga-Glms saga in Reykdla saga The latter characterizes a certain orvarr rnlfsson in chapter 15 as vitr mar en milungi ggjarn.
The wording is close to a characterization of the same man in Vga-Glms saga F 9: From his accumulation of evidence Baetke concludes that the author of Reykdla saga lifted the encounter between Vga-Glmr and Vga-Skta directly from chapter 16 in Vga-Glms saga.
Bjrn Sigfsson in turn traced it to Bjrn M. AnderssonOne additional argument might be deduced from Baetkes material. He notes too that the name Vga-Glmr, alongside Vga-Skta, is used the fi rst time Glmr is mentioned in Reykdla saga chapter This correspondence has more often than not been viewed as evidence that the name form derived from a separate ttr, but it could also be construed to mean that when the author of Reykdla saga set out to describe the encounter between the two warriors, he was looking at chapter 16 of Vga-Glms saga, where, perhaps not coincidentally, Pts avvisar uppgifter om kritik forms Vga-Glmr and Vga-Skta also appear more or less side by side.
With the publication of Jnas Kristjnssons probing recapitulation and Walter Baetkes decisive assignment of the priority to Vga-Glms saga, it looked as though there was a consensus in the making, but a third contribution appeared at about the same time and compli-cated the issues considerably. Boumans monograph provided a veritable fl ood of stylistic statistics on such matters as direct and indirect discourse, sentence length, and tense.
The statistics are so unsurveyable as to make the argument diffi cult to evaluate, but they led Bouman to the conclusion that chapters in Vga-Glms saga stand apart from the rest of the saga in terms of sentence brevity, parataxis in preference to hypotaxis, predominance of the historical present, and abundance of direct discourse.
This profi le is particularly evident in the Mruvallabk M redaction, which Bouman believed to be primary. The run of chap-ters from 13 to 16 includes not only the encounter between Glmr and Skta but also the episode in which Glmr kills Klfr of Stokkahlaa and then incriminates a certain Inglfr. Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV), 63 PTS criteria hyperarousal Garmezy, in a review of the early literature on child response to war, severe poverty, and parental Utför konkret och mekaniskt tilldelade uppgifter eller aktiviteter.
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