British rock describes a wide variety of forms of music made in the United Kingdom. Since aroundwith the " British Invasion " of the United States spearheaded by the BeatlesBritish rock music has had a considerable impact on the development of American music and rock music across the world. Initial attempts to emulate American rock and roll took place in Britain in the mids, but the terms "rock music" and "rock" usually refer to the music derived from the blues-rock and other genres that emerged during the Silvstedt och nielsen i brittiskt big brother. The term is often used in combination with other terms to describe a variety of hybrids or subgenres, and is often contrasted with pop music, Silvstedt och nielsen i brittiskt big brother which it shares many structures and instrumentation.
Rock music has tended to be more orientated toward the albums market, putting an emphasis on innovation, virtuosity, performance and song writing by the performers. Although much too diverse to be a genre in itself, British rock has produced many of the most significant groups and performers in rock music internationally, and has initiated or significantly developed many of the most influential subgenres, including beat musicprogressive rockart rockhard rockheavy metal musicpunkpost-punkNew Romanticand indie rock.
In the s, Britain was well placed to receive American rock and roll music and culture. The initial response of the British music industry was to attempt to produce copies of American records, recorded with session musicians and often fronted by teen idols. However, in Britain produced its first "authentic" rock and roll song and star, when Cliff Richard reached number 2 in the charts with " Move It ".
In late s Britain a flourishing culture of groups began to emerge, often out of the declining skiffle scene, in major urban centres in the UK like LiverpoolManchesterBirmingham and London. This was particularly true in Liverpool, where it has been estimated that there were around different bands active, often playing ballrooms, concert halls and clubs. These beat bands were heavily influenced by American groups of the era, such as Buddy Holly and the from which groups The Beatles and The Hollies derived their namesas well as earlier British groups such as The Shadows.
A number of these moved through Blues-rock to different forms of rock music, with increasing emphasis on technical virtuosity and improvisational skills. As a result, British blues helped to form many of the subgenres of rock, including psychedelic rock and heavy metal music. Since then direct interest in the blues in Britain has declined, but many of the key performers have returned to it in recent years, new acts have emerged and there has been a renewed interest in the genre.
The Beatles themselves were less influenced by blues music than the music of later American genres such as soul and Motown. Their popular success in Britain in the early s was matched by their new and highly influential emphases on their own song writing, and on technical production values, some of which were shared by other British beat groups.
On 4 Aprilthe Beatles held the top 5 positions on the Billboard Hot singles chart, the only time to date that any act has accomplished this. So-called "British Invasion" acts influenced fashion, haircuts and manners of the s Silvstedt och nielsen i brittiskt big brother what was to be known as the " Counterculture ".
In particular, the Beatles' movie A Hard Day's Night and fashions from Carnaby Street led American media to proclaim England as the centre of the music and fashion world. Psychedelic music is a style of music that is inspired or influenced by psychedelic culture and attempts to replicate and enhance the mind-altering experiences of hallucinogenic drugs. Psychedelic rock bridged the transition from early blues-rock to progressive rockart rockexperimental rockhard rock and eventually heavy metal that would become major genres in the s.
By the early s, rock music had become more mainstream, and internationalised, with many British acts becoming massively successful in the United States and globally.
Some of the most successful artists, such as the individual members of The Beatles, Elton JohnDavid Bowieand Rod Stewart performed their own songs and in some cases those written by others in an eclectic variety of styles, in which the presentation of the performance itself became increasingly important. British folk rock developed in Britain during the mid to late s by the bands Fairport Conventionand Pentangle which built on elements of American folk rockand on the second British folk revival.
Progressive or prog rock developed out of late s blues-rock and psychedelic rock. Dominated by British bands, it was part of an attempt to elevate rock music to new levels of artistic credibility. The arrangements often incorporated elements drawn from classicaljazzand international sources later called " world music ". Instrumentals were common, while songs with lyrics were sometimes conceptual, abstract, or based in fantasy. Progressive rock bands sometimes used concept albums that made unified statements, usually telling an epic story or tackling a grand overarching theme.
Glam or glitter rock developed in the UK in the post- hippie early s. It was characterised by "outrageous" clothes, makeup, hairstyles, and platform-soled boots. Other performers aimed much more directly for the popular music market, where they were the dominant groups of their era, including SladeWizzardMud and Sweet.
Largely confined to the British music scene where it originated, glam rock peaked during the mids, before it declined in the face of punk rock and new wave trends. With roots in blues-rockpsychedelic rock and garage rock the bands that created heavy metal developed a thick, powerful sound, characterised by overt rhythmic basslines, highly amplified distortionextended guitar solos, emphatic beats, and overall loudness. Heavy metal lyrics and performance styles often incorporated elements of fantasy and science fiction, and are generally associated with masculinity and machismo.
After a decline in popularity in the late s Judas Priest discarded most of the genre's blues influences, particularly on their album British Steelwhich opened the door for the new wave of British heavy metal NWOBHM including Iron MaidenVardisSaxon and Def Leppardand a return to popularity in the s. Although NWOBHM inspired many new bands, in the late s much of the creative impetus in the genre shifted towards America and continental Europe particularly Germany and Scandinaviawhich produced most of the major new subgenres of metal, which were then taken up by British acts.
These included thrash metal and death metalboth developed in the USA; black metal and power metalboth developed in continental Europe, but influenced by the British band Venom ; and doomwhich was developed in the USA but which soon had a number of bands from England, including Pagan Altar and Witchfinder General. Grindcoreor simply grind, was a hybrid of death metal and hardcore punk, characterized by heavily distorteddown-tuned guitarshigh speed tempoblast beatssongs often lasting no more than
Silvstedt och nielsen i brittiskt big brother minutes some are seconds longand vocals which consist of growls and high-pitched screams.
Probably the most successful British metal band since the days of NWOBHM were Cradle of Filth Silvstedt och nielsen i brittiskt big brother, formed inand pursuing a form of extreme metal that is difficult to categorise. Pub rock was a short-lived trend that left a lasting influence on the British music scene, especially in punk rock. It was a back-to-basics movement that reacted against the glittery glam rock of David Bowie and Gary Glitterand peaked in the mids.
Pub rock developed in large north London pubs. Brinsley Schwarz was probably the most influential group, achieving some mainstream success both in the UK and in the States.
FeelgoodThe Winkies and Sniff 'n' the Tears. Punk rock developed between andoriginally in the United States, where it was rooted in garage rockand other forms of what is now known as protopunk music.
This was taken up in Britain by bands also influenced by the pub rock scene, like the Sex PistolsThe Clash and The Damnedparticularly in London, who became the vanguard of a new musical and cultural movement, blending simple aggressive sounds and lyrics with clothing styles and a variety of anti-authoritarian ideologies.
However, bythe initial impulse had subsided and punk had morphed into the wider and more diverse new wave and post-punk movements. As the initial punk impulse began to subside, with the major punk bands either disbanding or taking on new influences, the term "New Wave" began to be used to describe particularly British bands that emerged in the later s with mainstream appeal.
Beside the development of mainstream new wave, there were also less commercial, darker and sub-culture acts, often classified as post-punk. Like new wave they incorporated a range of influences, including electronic music, Jamaican dub music specifically in bass guitarand American funk. Folk punk or rogue folk is a fusion of Silvstedt och nielsen i brittiskt big brother music and punk rockor occasionally other genres, which was pioneered the London-based band The Pogues in the s.
It achieved some mainstream success in the s and, particularly as the subgenre of Celtic punkhas been widely adopted in areas of the Celtic diaspora in North America and Australia and by many bands in continental central and eastern Europe.
Unlike earlier Celtic rock and electric folk groups, folk punk groups tend to include relatively little traditional music in their repertoire, but instead usually performed their own compositions, often following the form of punk rock, using additional folk instrumentation, including, mandolinaccordionbanjo and particularly violin.
Many progressive rock bands had incorporated synthesizers into their sound, including Pink FloydYes and Genesis. Others were soon to follow, including Tubeway Armya little known outfit from West London, who dropped their punk rock image and jumped on the band wagon, topping the UK charts in the summer of with the single " Are Friends Electric? This prompted the singer, Gary Numan to go solo and in the same year he release the Kraftwerk inspired album, The Pleasure Principle and again topped the charts for the second time with the single " Cars ".
Albums such as Visage 's VisageJohn Foxx 's MetamaticGary Numan's TelekonUltravox 's ViennaThe Human League 's Dare and Depeche Mode 's Speak and Spellestablished a sound that influenced most mainstream pop and rock bands, until it began to fall from popularity in the mids. New Romantic emerged as part of the new wave music movement in London nightclubs including Billy's
Silvstedt och nielsen i brittiskt big brother The Blitz Club towards the end of the s.
Influenced by David Bowie and Roxy Musicit developed glam rock fashions, gaining its name from the frilly fop shirts of early Romanticism.
New Romantic music often made extensive use of synthesizers.
From its inception inthe cable music channel MTV featured a disproportionate amount of music videos from image conscious British acts. Indie or independent rock, particularly in America often known as alternative rock, was a scene that emerged from post-punk and new wave in the s, eschewing the major record labels for control of their own music and relying on local scenes or national sub-cultures to provide an audience.
Silvstedt och nielsen i brittiskt big brother success a number of indie acts were able to move into the mainstream, including early indie bands Aztec CameraOrange Juice and The Smithsfollowed by The Housemartins and James. The Jesus and Mary Chain wrapped their pop melodies in walls of guitar noise, while New Order emerged from the demise of post-punk band Joy Division and experimented with techno and house musicforging the alternative dance style.
The Mary Chain, along with Dinosaur Jr and the dream pop of Cocteau Twinswere the influences for the shoegazing movement of the late s.
Gothic rock, often shortened to goth, developed out of the post-punk scene in the later s. It combines dark, often keyboard-heavy music with introspective and depressing lyrics.
Notable early gothic rock bands include Bauhaus whose " Bela Lugosi's Dead " is often cited as the first goth recordSiouxsie and the Banshees who may have coined the termThe CureThe Sisters of Mercyand Fields of the Nephilim. The music press in the UK began to place more focus on shoegazing bands from the south of England and bands emerging through US grunge.
Kane began fusing post-punk and ethereal experiments with bittersweet pop melodies into sensual, sonically ambitious soundscapes. A louder, more aggressive strain of dream pop came to be known as shoegazing ; key bands of this style were LushSlowdiveMy Bloody ValentineRideAlison's HaloChapterhouseCurve and Levitation.
These bands kept the atmospheric qualities of dream pop, but added the intensity of post-punk-influenced bands such as The Chameleons and Sonic Youth. Post-rock originated in the release of Talk Talk 's album Laughing Stock and US band Slint 's Spiderlandboth inwhich produced experimental work influenced by sources as varied as electronicajazzand minimalist classical music, often abandoning the traditional song format in favour of instrumental and ambient music.
Initially dubbed as ' C86 ' after the NME tape, and also known as "cutie", "shambling bands" and later as "twee pop",   indie pop was characterised by jangling guitars, a love of sixties pop and often fey, innocent lyrics. Scenes later developed in the United States particularly around labels such as K Records.
Britpop emerged from the British independent music scene of the early s and characterised by bands influenced by British guitar pop music of the s and s. From aboutas dissatisfaction grew with the concept of Cool Britannia, and Britpop as a movement began to dissolve, emerging bands began to avoid the Britpop label while still producing music derived from it. In the s British indie rock experienced a resurgence.
Other prominent independent rock bands in the s include: With developments in computer technology and music software advanced, it became possible to create high quality music using little more than a single laptop computer. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Successful British rock acts and movements. Led Zeppelin hard rock and heavy metal. Elton John glam rock. British rock and roll. British rhythm and blues. Heavy metal music and New wave of British heavy metal. Pub rock United Kingdom.
Indie rock and Alternative rock. Dream pop and Shoegazing. Garage rock revival and Post-punk revival. Frith, "Pop Music" in S. MacDonald Boone, Understanding Rock: Essays in Musical Analysis Oxford: Oxford University Press,p.
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