Crisis and Internationalization Home Crisis and Internationalization. Bengt Sundelius Edited by Er Crisis, authorities, crisis communication, effective crisis communication, crisis management 1 Myndigheter och effektiv kriskommunikation.
En kvalitativ studie om hur Utrikesdepartementet och svenska ambassaden i Ankara hanterade krisen i Turk. Crisis and Perspectives on Policy Change. References 1 References Andersson, G. Gudmundsson Flygkapardramat in Polisen griper in. The Systemic Approach to the Poverties M Economic crisis National crisis.
Governments and the Year Computer Crisis: Internationalization of managerial careers: Global Banks and International Shock Transmission: Presbitero Jonida Mullaj Pe. Banks and local development in Italy. Eight local systems in the crisis and beyond 1 T erritorio, banca, sviluppo. I sistemi territoriali dentro e oltre la crisi Banks and local development in Italy. Eight local systems in the crisis Om projektet och de delt. Bombkrisen i Frankrike Mc-krig i Sverige och Norden The MV Estonia Catastrophe Patterns and Problems in Crisis Management This work started with a book on Swedish crisis management2which probed three strategically selected cases to build a base for this wider objective.
In phase one of the project there has been an emphasis on continuing to develop our knowledge of crisis management on the Swedish scene but some cases were drawn from other arenas as well. The eight case studies presented here give an opportunity to make a substantial contribution, not only to an analytically coherent and policy relevant case-bank, but also to generalized knowledge of crisis decision-making processes.
In subsequent volumes from the project there will be an increasing emphasis on commissioned studies of crisis Galna ko sjukan sverige kan fa undantag have occurred in other countries in the Baltic Sea area.
The next volume presents results from the Estonian crisis research team. The idea is that by dissecting the crisis experiences, we can draw lessons from experience. We can use the case-banks for training and also for seeking patterns across crises, across sectors and maybe also across nations.
This is useful for explaining outcomes and in a sense for evaluating performance. Some crises turned out very well, others not so well. How do we explain differences in outcome? We see this as a useful partnership between doing something of importance in the sphere of knowledge, building better insights about our own past, and generating knowledge that hopefully can be useful for coping with crises in the future, for training purposes and for planning.
We have developed a rather simple three-step approach in order to structure our analysis. First of all, and not the least important step, is to describe the crisis episode in great detail.
Day by day, minute by minute, the events are narrated to give the best possible description of what actually happened. It is a laborious, very research intensive task. Even the crisis managers themselves only have some pieces of the puzzle, only part of the overall picture. We pull together data, from various public sources, interviews and informal meetings with crisis managers, trying to get a comprehensive picture across the various action arenas of the crisis episode.
After we have as good a picture possible of the events and the processes of a crisis, we turn to step two: In reality, there is no such thing as a crisis.
Rather from the perspective of the involved decision-makers, the crisis managers, there are a series of acute problems: What is happening now? What do I do now? The idea is to come as close as possible to the crisis experience, as subjectively seen by the decision-makers. Again, this is a laborious task, to reconstruct the crisis episode from the perspective of the key players. This requires even more details and in-depth interviews to be able to, in a sense, rebuild the case.
Then we have a postmortem, a case dissected, slice by slice by slice. The next step is to address the materials from different analytical points of view. We have to "Galna ko sjukan sverige kan fa undantag" the materials again, look at the processes from various angles. There are several questions that are important to highlight.
There are usually a number of formal plans for decision making in crisis management. These charts may function as expected, or they may not function as expected. It is an empirical question: How do they actually operate in a real crisis? Are the formally designated bodies the ones actually being used or do ad hoc units form? We know from crisis studies, that ad hoc units often form outside of the formal structures.
These informal units are the real decision making centers in a crisis experience. Who gets to be inside and who is excluded? What are Galna ko sjukan sverige kan fa undantag criteria for inclusion or exclusion? There are certain formal criteria, of course, for inclusion. But there are probably a number of other criteria as well and often these are rather ambiguous. Is it a formal position or is it simply availability?
He or she happened to be there right then, when the decision unit is being formed. Is availability the primary driving force or is it expertise, formal position, ties to the leader or the like? These are empirical questions and the answers are not given as simply as one would think when one gets into each case.
A related issue is the question of centralization. Conventional wisdom argues that in a crisis, decision-making is centralized to the top. The primary decisions are then not made in the central headquarters or alike, rather they are localized to the scene of action or interacting with the opponent or the parties or whatever. Another question about decision units: How about the dynamics inside these decision units?
What is the atmosphere like inside a decision unit? Is it primarily a task-oriented approach, an approach of trying to solve a problem together? Is that the mode of the operation? Interests are involved; players have stakes in the issues and have to settle their differences one way or another. These aspects vary quite a bit across situations, political traditions and organizational cultures. Another set of questions regarding decision units concerns boundary management.
How about the openness towards outside information or advice? Is there openness inside the decision unit towards outsiders coming with valuable information or important advice?
Or, as many studies of small tight decision units indicate, is there a so-called group-think syndrome4 at work?
Groupthink describes a situation where group members suspend their individual judgements and concur with a leader preference or an apparent consensus view in highly stressful situations.
Is that the operating 3 4 Hermann, This is an empirical question often taken for granted. It has important implications for the performance of these decision groups and for the outcome of the crisis management effort. Alongside these processes of decision unit formation comes another important dimension. The second set of questions concerns problem framing. At the same time as the decision unit is shaped, a certain problem framing is occurring. Are decision units created to deal with the problem at hand, or is it the other way around?
What is the relationship between decision units and problem framing? We can say, with some certainty, that there is a symbiotic relationship between these two aspects.
Often, the problem is being framed simultaneously as the decision unit is being formed. We also know, from a number of crisis studies, that the initial problem framing often sets the tone for the entire crisis response and recovery effort.
The initial problem framing presented in the early phase of a crisis carries a weight on its own and spillsover to the rest of the effort. Or it can be highly spontaneous and ill founded. It may be that the initial problem formulation is not based on solid information at all, but is rather an ad hoc formulation in a spontaneous moment — a whim, if you will. Whether or not this is the case is an empirical question. The important point is here that the initial problem formulation, particularly if it is ill founded, tends to contaminate the work ahead.
It carries over into the management process itself and shapes it. This Galna ko sjukan sverige kan fa undantag to the third set of questions that we address for each case, that of information management.
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Crisis and Internationalization
The previous Landsort incident lies heavy over this decision as the Supreme Commander confesses to a growing lack of faith in the weapon systems and personnel. This was a strictly operative problem to the outside world, but to the actors involved several political choices had to be made.
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